Securing east-west traffic in service meshes, such as AWS App Mesh, by using mutual Transport Layer Security (mTLS) adds an additional layer of defense beyond perimeter control. mTLS adds bidirectional peer-to-peer authentication on top of the one-way authentication in normal TLS. This is done by adding a client-side certificate during the TLS handshake, through which a client proves possession of the corresponding private key to the server, and as a result the server trusts the client. This prevents an arbitrary client from connecting to an App Mesh service, because the client wouldn’t possess a valid certificate.
In this blog post, you’ll learn how to enable mTLS in App Mesh by using certificates derived from AWS Certificate Manager Private Certificate Authority (ACM Private CA). You’ll also learn how to reuse AWS CloudFormation templates, which we make available through a companion open-source project, for configuring App Mesh and ACM Private CA.
You’ll first see how to derive server-side certificates from ACM Private CA into App Mesh internally by using the native integration between the two services. You’ll then see a method and code for installing client-side certificates issued from ACM Private CA into App Mesh; this method is needed because client-side certificates aren’t integrated natively.
You’ll learn how to use AWS Lambda to export a client-side certificate from ACM Private CA and store it in AWS Secrets Manager. You’ll then see Envoy proxies in App Mesh retrieve the certificate from Secrets Manager and use it in an mTLS handshake. The solution is designed to ensure confidentiality of the private key of a client-side certificate, in transit and at rest, as it moves from ACM to Envoy.
The solution described in this blog post simplifies and allows you to automate the configuration and operations of mTLS-enabled App Mesh deployments, because all of the certificates are derived from a single managed private public key infrastructure (PKI) service—ACM Private CA—eliminating the need to run your own private PKI. The solution uses Amazon Elastic Container Services (Amazon ECS) with AWS Fargate as the App Mesh hosting environment, although the design presented here can be applied to any compute environment that is supported by App Mesh.
ACM Private CA provides a highly available managed private PKI service that enables creation of private CA hierarchies—including root and subordinate CAs—without the investment and maintenance costs of operating your own private PKI service. The service allows you to choose among several CA key algorithms and key sizes and makes it easier for you to export and deploy private certificates anywhere by using API-based automation.
App Mesh is a service mesh that provides application-level networking across multiple types of compute infrastructure. It standardizes how your microservices communicate, giving you end-to-end visibility and helping to ensure transport security and high availability for your applications. In order to communicate securely between mesh endpoints, App Mesh directs the Envoy proxy instances that are running within the mesh to use one-way or mutual TLS.
TLS provides authentication, privacy, and data integrity between two communicating endpoints. The authentication in TLS communications is governed by the PKI system. The PKI system allows certificate authorities to issue certificates that are used by clients and servers to prove their identity. The authentication process in TLS happens by exchanging certificates via the TLS handshake protocol. By default, the TLS handshake protocol proves the identity of the server to the client by using X.509 certificates, while the authentication of the client to the server is left to the application layer. This is called one-way TLS. TLS also supports two-way authentication through mTLS. In mTLS, in addition to the one-way TLS server authentication with a certificate, a client presents its certificate and proves possession of the corresponding private key to a server during the TLS handshake.
The following sections describe one-way and mutual TLS integrations between App Mesh and ACM Private CA in the context of an example application. This example application exposes an API to external clients that returns a text string name of a color—for example, “yellow”. It’s an extension of the Color App that’s used to demonstrate several existing App Mesh examples.
The example application is comprised of two services running in App Mesh—ColorGateway and ColorTeller. An external client request enters the mesh through the ColorGateway service and is proxied to the ColorTeller service. The ColorTeller service responds back to the ColorGateway service with the name of a color. The ColorGateway service proxies the response to the external client. Figure 1 shows the basic design of the application.
The two services are mapped onto the following constructs in App Mesh:
- ColorGateway is mapped as a Virtual gateway. A virtual gateway in App Mesh allows resources that are outside of a mesh to communicate to resources that are inside the mesh. A virtual gateway represents Envoy deployed by itself. In this example, the virtual gateway represents an Envoy proxy that is running as an Amazon ECS service. This Envoy proxy instance acts as a TLS client, since it initiates TLS connections to the Envoy proxy that is running in the ColorTeller service.
- ColorTeller is mapped as a Virtual node. A virtual node in App Mesh acts as a logical pointer to a particular task group. In this example, the virtual node—ColorTeller—runs as another Amazon ECS service. The service runs two tasks—an Envoy proxy instance and a ColorTeller application instance. The Envoy proxy instance acts as a TLS server, receiving inbound TLS connections from ColorGateway.
Let’s review running the example application in one-way TLS mode. Although optional, starting with one-way TLS allows you to compare the two methods and establish how to look at certain Envoy proxy statistics to distinguish and verify one-way TLS versus mTLS connections.
For practice, you can deploy the example application project in your own AWS account and perform the steps described in your own test environment.
Note: In both the one-way TLS and mTLS descriptions in the following sections, we’re using a flat certificate hierarchy for demonstration purposes. The root CAs are issuing end-entity certificates. The AWS ACM Private CA best practices recommend that root CAs should only be used to issue certificates for intermediate CAs. When intermediate CAs are involved, your certificate chain has multiple certificates concatenated in it, but the mechanisms are the same as those described here.
One-way TLS in App Mesh using ACM Private CA
Because this is a one-way TLS authentication scenario, you need only one Private CA—ColorTeller—and issue one end-entity certificate from it that’s used as the server-side certificate for the ColorTeller virtual node.
Figure 2, following, shows the architecture for this setup, including notations and color codes for certificates and a step-by-step process that shows how the system is configured and functions. Because this architecture uses a server-side certificate only, you use the native integration between App Mesh and ACM Private CA and don’t need an external mechanism for certificate integration.
The steps in Figure 2 are:
Step 1: A Private CA instance—ColorTeller—is created in ACM Private CA. Next, an end-entity certificate is created and signed by the CA. This certificate is used as the server-side certificate in ColorTeller.
Step 2: The CloudFormation templates configure the ColorGateway to validate server certificates against the ColorTeller private CA certificate chain. As the App Mesh endpoints are starting up, the ColorTeller CA certificate trust chain is ingested into the ColorGateway Envoy instance. The TLS configuration for ColorGateway in App Mesh is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 shows that the client policy attributes for outbound transport connections for ColorGateway have been configured as follows:
- Enforce TLS is set to Enforced. This enforces use of TLS while communicating with backends.
- TLS validation method is set to AWS Certificate Manager Private Certificate Authority (ACM-PCA hosting). This instructs App Mesh to derive the certificate trust chain from ACM PCA.
- Certificate is set to the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the ColorTeller Private CA, which is the identifier of the certificate trust chain in ACM PCA.
This configuration ensures that ColorGateway makes outbound TLS-only connections towards ColorTeller, extracts the CA trust chain from ACM-PCA, and validates the server certificate presented by the ColorTeller virtual node against the configured CA ARN.
Step 3: The CloudFormation templates configure the ColorTeller virtual node with the ColorTeller end-entity certificate ARN in ACM Private CA. While the App Mesh endpoints are started, the ColorTeller end-entity certificate is ingested into the ColorTeller Envoy instance.
The TLS configuration for the ColorTeller virtual node in App Mesh is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 shows that various TLS-related attributes are configured as follows:
- Enable TLS termination is on.
- Mode is set to Strict to limit connections to TLS only.
- TLS Certificate method is set to ACM Certificate Manager (ACM) hosting as the source of the end-entity certificate.
- Certificate is set to ARN of the ColorTeller end-entity certificate.
Note: Figure 4 shows an annotation where the certificate ARN has been superimposed by the cert icon in green color. This icon follows the color convention from Figure 2 and can help you relate how the individual resources are configured to construct the architecture shown in Figure 2. The cert shown (and the associated private key that is not shown) in the diagram is necessary for ColorTeller to run the TLS stack and serve the certificate. The exchange of this material happens over the internal communications between App Mesh and ACM Private CA.
Step 4: The ColorGateway service receives a request from an external client.
Step 5: This step includes multiple sub-steps:
- The ColorGateway Envoy initiates a one-way TLS handshake towards the ColorTeller Envoy.
- The ColorTeller Envoy presents its server-side certificate to the ColorGateway Envoy.
- The ColorGateway Envoy validates the certificate against its configured CA trust chain—the ColorTeller CA trust chain—and the TLS handshake succeeds.
Verifying one-way TLS
To verify that a TLS connection was established and that it is one-way TLS authenticated, run the following command on your bastion host:
This command queries the runtime statistics that are maintained in ColorTeller Envoy and filters the output for certain SSL-related counts. The count for ssl.handshake should be one. If the ssl.handshake count is more than one, that means there’s been more than one TLS handshake. The count for ssl.no_certificate should also be one, or equal to the count for ssl.handshake. The ssl.no_certificate count tracks the total successful TLS connections with no client certificate. Since this is a one-way TLS handshake that doesn’t involve client certificates, this count is the same as the count of ssl.handshake.
The preceding statistics verify that a TLS handshake was completed and the authentication was one-way, where the ColorGateway authenticated the ColorTeller but not vice-versa. You’ll see in the next section how the ssl.no_certificate count differs when mTLS is enabled.
Mutual TLS in App Mesh using ACM Private CA
In the one-way TLS discussion in the previous section, you saw that App Mesh and ACM Private CA integration works without needing external enhancements. You also saw that App Mesh retrieved the server-side end-entity certificate in ColorTeller and the root CA trust chain in ColorGateway from ACM Private CA internally, by using the native integration between the two services.
However, a native integration between App Mesh and ACM Private CA isn’t currently available for client-side certificates. Client-side certificates are necessary for mTLS. In this section, you’ll see how you can issue and export client-side certificates from ACM Private CA and ingest them into App Mesh.
The solution uses Lambda to export the client-side certificate from ACM Private CA and store it in Secrets Manager. The solution includes an enhanced startup script embedded in the Envoy image to retrieve the certificate from Secrets Manager and place it on the Envoy file system before the Envoy process is started. The Envoy process reads the certificate, loads it in memory, and uses it in the TLS stack for the client-side certificate exchange of the mTLS handshake.
The choice of Lambda is based on this being an ephemeral workflow that needs to run only during system configuration. You need a short-lived, runtime compute context that lets you run the logic for exporting certificates from ACM Private CA and store them in Secrets Manager. Because this compute doesn’t need to run beyond this step, Lambda is an ideal choice for hosting this logic, for cost and operational effectiveness.
The choice of Secrets Manager for storing certificates is based on the confidentiality requirements of the passphrase that is used for encrypting the private key (PKCS #8) of the certificate. You also need a higher throughput data store that can support secrets retrieval from large meshes. Secrets Manager supports a higher API rate limit than the API for exporting certificates from ACM Private CA, and thus serves as a high-throughput front end for ACM Private CA for serving certificates without compromising data confidentiality.
The resulting architecture is shown in Figure 5. The figure includes notations and color codes for certificates—such as root certificates, endpoint certificates, and private keys—and a step-by-step process showing how the system is configured, started, and functions at runtime. The example uses two CA hierarchies for ColorGateway and ColorTeller to demonstrate an mTLS setup where the client and server belong to separate CA hierarchies but trust each other’s CAs.
The numbered steps in Figure 5 are:
Step 1: A Private CA instance representing the ColorGateway trust hierarchy is created in ACM Private CA. Next, an end-entity certificate is created and signed by the CA, which is used as the client-side certificate in ColorGateway.
Step 2: Another Private CA instance representing the ColorTeller trust hierarchy is created in ACM Private CA. Next, an end-entity certificate is created and signed by the CA, which is used as the server-side certificate in ColorTeller.
Step 3: As part of running CloudFormation, the Lambda function is invoked. This Lambda function is responsible for exporting the client-side certificate from ACM Private CA and storing it in Secrets Manager. This function begins by requesting a random password from Secrets Manager. This random password is used as the passphrase for encrypting the private key inside ACM Private CA before it’s returned to the function. Generating a random password from Secrets Manager allows you to generate a random password with a specified complexity.
Step 4: The Lambda function issues an export certificate request to ACM, requesting the ColorGateway end-entity certificate. The request conveys the private key passphrase retrieved from Secrets Manager in the previous step so that ACM Private CA can use it to encrypt the private key that’s sent in the response.
Step 5: The ACM Private CA responds to the Lambda function. The response carries the following elements of the ColorGateway end-entity certificate.
Step 6: The Lambda function processes the response that is returned from ACM. It extracts individual fields in the JSON-formatted response and stores them in Secrets Manager. The Lambda function stores the following four values in Secrets Manager:
- The ColorGateway endpoint certificate
- The ColorGateway certificate trust chain, which contains the ColorGateway Private CA root certificate
- The encrypted private key for the ColorGateway end-entity certificate
- The passphrase that was used to encrypt the private key
Step 7: The App Mesh services—ColorGateway and ColorTeller—are started, which then start their Envoy proxy containers. A custom startup script embedded in the Envoy docker image fetches a certificate from Secrets Manager and places it on the Envoy file system.
Note: App Mesh publishes its own custom Envoy proxy Docker container image that ensures it is fully tested and patched with the latest vulnerability and performance patches. You’ll notice in the example source code that a custom Envoy image is built on top of the base image published by App Mesh. In this solution, we add an Envoy startup script and certain utilities such as AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) and jq to help retrieve the certificate from Secrets Manager and place it on the Envoy file system during Envoy startup.
Step 8: The CloudFormation scripts configure the client policy for mTLS in ColorGateway in App Mesh, as shown in Figure 6. The following attributes are configured:
- Provide client certificate is enabled. This ensures that the client certificate is exchanged as part of the mTLS handshake.
- Certificate method is set to Local file hosting so that the certificate is read from the local file system.
- Certificate chain is set to the path for the file that contains the ColorGateway certificate chain.
- Private key is set to the path for the file that contains the private key for the ColorGateway certificate.
At the end of the custom Envoy startup script described in step 7, the core Envoy process in ColorGateway service is started. It retrieves the ColorTeller CA root certificate from ACM Private CA and configures it internally as a trusted CA. This retrieval happens due to native integration between App Mesh and ACM Private CA. This allows ColorGateway Envoy to validate the certificate presented by ColorTeller Envoy during the TLS handshake.
Step 9: The CloudFormation scripts configure the listener configuration for mTLS in ColorTeller in App Mesh, as shown in Figure 7. The following attributes are configured:
- Require client certificate is enabled, which enforces mTLS.
- Validation Method is set to Local file hosting, which causes Envoy to read the certificate from the local file system.
- Certificate chain is set to the path for the file that contains the ColorGateway certificate chain.
At the end of the Envoy startup script described in step 7, the core Envoy process in ColorTeller service is started. It retrieves its own server-side end-entity certificate and corresponding private key from ACM Private CA. This retrieval happens internally, driven by the native integration between App Mesh and ACM Private CA. This allows ColorTeller Envoy to present its server-side certificate to ColorGateway Envoy during the TLS handshake.
The system startup concludes with this step, and the application is ready to process external client requests.
Step 10: The ColorGateway service receives a request from an external client.
Step 11: The ColorGateway Envoy initiates a TLS handshake with the ColorTeller Envoy. During the first half of the TLS handshake protocol, the ColorTeller Envoy presents its server-side certificate to the ColorGateway Envoy. The ColorGateway Envoy validates the certificate. Because the ColorGateway Envoy has been configured with the ColorTeller CA trust chain in step 8, the validation succeeds.
Step 12: During the second half of the TLS handshake, the ColorTeller Envoy requests the ColorGateway Envoy to provide its client-side certificate. This step is what distinguishes an mTLS exchange from a one-way TLS exchange.
The ColorGateway Envoy responds with its end-entity certificate that had been placed on its file system in step 7. The ColorTeller Envoy validates the received certificate with its CA trust chain, which contains the ColorGateway root CA that was placed on its file system (in step 7). The validation succeeds, and so an mTLS session is established.
You can now verify that an mTLS exchange happened by running the following command on your bastion host.
The count for ssl.handshake should be one. If the ssl.handshake count is more than one, that means that you’ve gone through more than one TLS handshake. It’s important to note that the count for ssl.no_certificate—the total successful TLS connections with no client certificate—is zero. This shows that mTLS configuration is working as expected. Recall that this count was one or higher—equal to the ssl.handshake count—in the previous section that described one-way TLS. The ssl.no_certificate count being zero indicates that this was an mTLS authenticated connection, where the ColorGateway authenticated the ColorTeller and vice-versa.
The ACM Private CA certificates that are imported into App Mesh are not eligible for managed renewal, so an external certificate renewal method is needed. This example solution uses an external renewal method as recommended in Renewing certificates in a private PKI that you can use in your own implementations.
The certificate renewal mechanism can be broken down into six steps, which are outlined in Figure 8.
Here are the steps illustrated in Figure 8:
Step 2: CloudWatch triggers a Lambda function that is responsible for certificate renewal.
Step 4: The Lambda function writes the certificate to Secrets Manager.
Step 5: The Lambda function triggers a new service deployment in an Amazon ECS cluster. This will cause the ECS services to go through a graceful update process to acquire a renewed certificate.
Step 6: The Envoy processes in App Mesh fetch the client-side certificate from Secrets Manager using external integration, and the server-side certificate from ACM using native integration.
In this post, you learned a method for enabling mTLS authentication between App Mesh endpoints based on certificates issued by ACM Private CA. mTLS enhances security of App Mesh deployments due to its bidirectional authentication capability. While server-side certificates are integrated natively, you saw how to use Lambda and Secrets Manager to integrate client-side certificates externally. Because ACM Private CA certificates aren’t eligible for managed renewal, you also learned how to implement an external certificate renewal process.
This solution enhances your App Mesh security posture by simplifying configuration of mTLS-enabled App Mesh deployments. It achieves this because all mTLS certificate requirements are met by a single, managed private PKI service—ACM Private CA—which allows you to centrally manage certificates and eliminates the need to run your own private PKI.
If you have feedback about this post, submit comments in the Comments section below. If you have questions about this post, start a new thread on the AWS Certificate Manager forum or contact AWS Support.
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