In this post, I discuss how you can use recent enhancements in AWS WAF to manage a multi-layer web application security enforcement policy. These enhancements will help you to maintain and deploy web application firewall configurations across deployment stages and across different types of applications.
AWS Managed Rules for AWS WAF is a service that provides groups of rules created by Amazon Web Services (AWS) or by an AWS technology partner. By using AWS Managed Rules, you can reduce the administrative overhead of configuring rules for AWS WAF. You still need a comprehensive strategy for web application policy enforcement to help you make the best use of AWS Managed Rules for your web applications.
By using a layered policy enforcement strategy, you can create policy enforcement that’s specific to each part of your applications. This helps you avoid having to maintain and manage monolithic AWS WAF configurations for each of your applications. When you can separate policies for the edge network and for the application layer network, replicating separate policies across larger workloads becomes modular. This makes your application security more agile and lets you protect public-facing web applications without writing new rules or including rules that aren’t relevant to your web application.
Policy enforcement becomes even less of an administrative burden when you use AWS Firewall Manager to enforce policies across all accounts. This helps ensure organizations have robust policy enforcement measures across multiple accounts, with increased application layer visibility.
The new AWS WAF JSON document-style configuration enables traditional code review processes. You can now easily manage AWS WAF configurations on multiple layers of your web applications. This has also enabled partners to create more dynamic and robust rules that they can deliver on AWS WAF, which ultimately helps those customers manage their web application security policies.
AWS WAF enhancements
AWS WAF uses web ACL capacity units (WCU) to calculate and control the operating resources that are used to run your rules, rule groups, and web ACLs.
You can use JSON key-value pair document-based configuration to more easily integrate AWS WAF into the development practices of your organization. As noted in the prior paragraph, using document-style configuration removes the need to use multiple API calls to create objects in the correct order before you can create and deploy a web ACL to protect your web applications.
Using this method lets firewall changes be implemented with normal development and operations best practices because it will be infrastructure as code. This enables version control and code review before deploying updates to your production environment.
The following diagram illustrates the layers and functions of a defense-in-depth solution. The text that follows describes each layer.
Edge network layer policy enforcement
The edge network is the first layer of policy enforcement and should be used for broad security policy enforcement. This is the ideal place for rules such as AWS Managed Rules Core rule set (CRS), geographical location blocks, IP reputational lists, anonymous IP lists, and basic rate limits enforcement. By limiting known bad traffic at the edge network, the CRS limits the exposure of the application layer to known bad IP address ranges, malicious requests, bad bots, and request floods. This provides broad protection to the inner application layer against malicious activity, which can be applied regardless of the web application being served at the application layer.
It’s a common misconception that CloudFront is only a content delivery platform, but it also has robust transparent reverse proxy capabilities. CloudFront can help protect your environment from a broad range of web application risks. For example, you can use CloudFront to ensure that HTTP requests conform to standards on the far outer layer of your web application environment while serving content closer to the user.
Application layer policy enforcement
The next level of enforcement should be an application load balancer in a public subnet with another web ACL at the CloudFront origin. This policy enforcement layer is where you create a regional web ACL for the CloudFront origin. In addition, this layer is where you apply application-specific rules. For example, if you have a web application that uses a LAMP stack, it would be best to use AWS Managed Rules for SQL Injection, Linux, and PHP as an enforcement layer.
Note: IP-based enforcement is not effective on this part of the environment. Consider making use of an origin custom header on the CloudFront distribution. Then using this custom header to create a BLOCK rule within this web ACL to deny any request without the origin custom header as the first rule in your web ACL list. This rule needs to be created manually and will not be configured by the supplied templates.
(Optional) Third-party web application firewall layer policy enforcement
AWS WAF enforces policies on inbound requests and doesn’t have outbound inspection capabilities. If you need to enforce policies based on outbound responses, you can use Amazon Machine Image (AMI) based web application firewalls, which are available via the AWS Marketplace.
Using an instance-based web application firewall is used here because most of the heavy lifting of computational expenditure is done on the AWS WAF enforcement layers. The third-party layer is where you can enforce policies that require requests to be stateful.
Using an AMI from AWS Marketplace also gives you access to capabilities such as higher visibility, threat intelligence, and robust firewall rules. This adds an additional layer of security enhancement to your environment.
(Optional) Private layer policy enforcement
When working with a traditional three-tier web architecture, you can add an additional layer of enforcement on the private layer, which can be used for the web front ends. This stage is where you would deploy an application load balancer in a private subnet serving your web front ends. This load balancer is there for any computational expensive regex-based rule enforcement that you don’t want to enforce on the instances-based WAF. This also gives you another layer of visibility before requests reaches the web front ends themselves. This example can be seen in Figure 2 below as a reference.
Use case examples
The AWS CloudFormation templates supplied can be deployed in a modular fashion. If the application load balancer is located in the us-east-1 region, you can deploy a single template called Amazon-CloudFront-Application-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml.
If the application load balancer isn’t located in us-east-1, you can use the Amazon-CloudFront-EdgeLayer-AMR.yml template to deploy the stack in us-east-1 to support the web ACL on CloudFront and then deploy ApplicationLayer-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml in the region the original application load balancer was deployed for its web ACL.
Note: All the individual rules in each rule set is set to ACTION OVERRIDE for initial deployment. If any of the rule actions in the group are set to block or allow, this override changes the behavior so that matching rules are only counted. You may change the setting to NO ACTION OVERRIDE after a period of evaluation to avoid disrupting production workloads with potential false positives.
Edge network and application load balancer origin using AWS Managed Rules for AWS WAF
When considering some of the web application best practices on AWS for resiliency and security, the recommendation is to use CloudFront where possible, because it can terminate TLS/SSL connections and serve cached content close to the end user. CloudFront has advanced mitigation capabilities such as SYN cookies and a massively distributed network separate from the traditional Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) networking space. CloudFront also supports AWS WAF rate limits, IP blacklists, and broad security policies, which can be enforced at the edge network layer.
In the example Amazon-CloudFront-Application-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml template, we place a rate-limit for HTTP GET and HTTP POST methods. This is dependent upon expected traffic request rates. You can review Amazon CloudWatch metrics for your CloudFront distribution or application load balancer to determine the baseline for your rate limit based on the maximum expected requests per minute.
The rate limit is adjustable within the parameter options at deployment of the AWS CloudFormation template Amazon-CloudFront-Application-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml. The HTTP POST rate limit also helps to slow down credential stuffing attacks—a form of brute force attack—on login pages. The ApplicationLayer-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml template used in part 2 of this post also deploys the Amazon IP reputation list to drop IP addresses based on Amazon internal threat intelligence.
We also use the AWS Managed Rules CommonRuleSet that blocks cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, request with no user-agents, requests with known bad user-agents, large queries, posts, cookies, and URLs, and known LFI/RFI attacks.
Note: The size constraint rules aren’t recommended for protecting APIs or web applications with large HTTP POSTs or long cookies. Evaluate the possible effects of size constraint rules thoroughly before setting them to block requests.
There is also an AWS Managed Rule for known bad inputs which is based on threat intelligence gathered by the AWS Threat Research Team. Finally, there is an admin protection rule set that drops requests to known management login pages. It’s not advised that web applications have front door access to admin controls.
At the origin, it’s a good idea to use an application load balancer that also supports AWS WAF. This is where you want to apply application-specific web policies. For example, this is where you would apply rules to protect against a SQL injection attack if your web application uses a SQL database.
In the example AWS CloudFormation template Amazon-CloudFront-Application-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml, for the origin application load balancer, we use AWS Managed Rules for SQL injections, Linux rule set, Unix rule set, PHP rule set, and the WordPress rule set to cover most eventualities customers could be using on their web applications.
For the example solution in part 2 of this post, if the origin application load balancer is in us-east-1, you can use Amazon-CloudFront-Application-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml, which will deploy both web ACLs.
If the origin is not in us-east-1, you can use two example templates which are Amazon-CloudFront-EdgeLayer-AMR.yml for the edge network and ApplicationLayer-Load-Balancer-AMR.yml in the origin region.
Using AWS Managed WAF Rules on public and private application load balancers
Some customers have reasons to not use CloudFront and will use two application load balancers. One load balancer for the public facing environment for web front ends and an internal load balancer for the application backends.
The following figure shows a deployment that uses two load balancers. A public load balancer works with the edge network WAF to connect to a web front end in a private subnet and an internal load balancer connects to the backend application.
In this use case, we can still use the same structure of edge network and application layer network, now only using load balancers. Using a three-tier web application approach to deploy web applications there will be an external facing and an internal application load balancer where you can deploy the same style of policy enforcement, but only on load balancers.
Note: To deploy something similar to this example, you can use the template EdgeLayerALB-PrivateLayerALB-AMR.yml in the relevant regions where the load balancers have been deployed.
Alarms and logging
After deploying these AWS CloudFormation templates you should consider setting CloudWatch alarms on certain metrics for the HTTP GET and HTTP POST flood rules as well as the reputation and anonymous IP lists. Customers that are familiar with developing may also opt to use Lambda responders to use CloudWatch Events to trigger and update to the rule change from COUNT to BLOCK. Also enabling full logging for each web ACL will give you higher visibility into each request and will make potential investigations easier.
Using the new enhancements of AWS WAF makes it easier to manage a multi-layer web application security enforcement policy by using AWS WAF to maintain and deploy web application firewall configurations across their different deployment stages, as well as across different types of applications. By making use of partner or AWS Managed Rules, administrative overhead can be significantly reduced, and with AWS Firewall Manager, customers can enforce these policies across all of an organization’s accounts. Part 2 of this post will show you one example of how this can be done.
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