This post is written by Nate Bachmeier, Senior Solutions Architect, Wallace Printz, Senior Solutions Architect, Christian Mueller, Principal Solutions Architect.
Many cloud-native application architectures take advantage of the point-to-point and publish-subscribe, or “pub-sub”, model of message-based communication between application components. Not only is this architecture generally more resilient to failure because of the loose coupling and because message processing failures can be retried, it is also more efficient because individual application components can independently scale up or down to maintain message processing SLAs, compared to monolithic application architectures.
Synchronous (REST-based) systems are tightly coupled. A problem in a synchronous downstream dependency has immediate impact on the upstream callers. Retries from upstream callers can fan out and amplify problems.
For applications requiring messaging protocols including JMS, NMS, AMQP, STOMP, MQTT, and WebSocket, Amazon provides Amazon MQ. This is a managed message broker service for Apache ActiveMQ and RabbitMQ that makes it easier to set up and operate message brokers in the cloud.
Amazon MQ provides two managed broker deployment connection options: public brokers and private brokers. Public brokers receive internet-accessible IP addresses while private brokers receive only private IP addresses from the corresponding CIDR range in their VPC subnet. In some cases, for security purposes, customers may prefer to place brokers in a private subnet, but also allow access to the brokers through a persistent public endpoint, such as a subdomain of their corporate domain like ‘mq.example.com’.
This blog explains how to provision private Amazon MQ brokers behind a secure public load balancer endpoint using an example subdomain.
AmazonMQ also supports ActiveMQ – to learn more, read Creating static custom domain endpoints with Amazon MQ to simplify broker modification and scaling.
There are several reasons one might want to deploy this architecture beyond the security aspects. First, human-readable URLs are easier for people to parse when reviewing operations and troubleshooting, such as deploying updates to ‘mq-dev.example.com’ before ‘mq-prod.example.com’. Additionally, maintaining static URLs for your brokers helps reduce the necessity of modifying client code when performing maintenance on the brokers.
The following diagram shows the solutions architecture. This blog post assumes some familiarity with AWS networking fundamentals, such as VPCs, subnets, load balancers, and Amazon Route 53. For additional information on these topics, see the Elastic Load Balancing documentation.
- The client service tries to connect with a RabbitMQ connection string to the domain endpoint setup in Route 53.
- The client looks up the domain name from Route 53, which returns the IP address of the Network Load Balancer (NLB).
- The client creates a Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection to the NLB with a secure socket layer (SSL) certificate provided from AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).
- The NLB chooses a healthy endpoint from the target group and creates a separate SSL connection. This provides secure, end-to-end SSL encrypted messaging between client and brokers.
To build this architecture, you build the network segmentation first, then add the Amazon MQ brokers, and finally the network routing. You need a VPC, one private subnet per Availability Zone, and one public subnet for your bastion host (if desired).
This demonstration VPC uses the 10.0.0.0/16 CIDR range. Additionally, you must create a custom security group for your brokers. You must set up this security group to allow traffic from your Network Load Balancer to the RabbitMQ brokers.
This example does not use this VPC for other workloads so it allows all incoming traffic that originates within the VPC (which includes the NLB) through to the brokers on the AMQP port of 5671 and the web console port of 443.
Adding the Amazon MQ brokers
With the network segmentation set up, add the Amazon MQ brokers:
- Choose Create brokers on the Active Amazon MQ home page.
- Toggle the radio button next to RabbitMQ and choose Next.
- Choose a deployment mode of either single-instance broker (for development environments), or cluster deployment (for production environments).
- In Configure settings, specify the broker name and instance type.
- Confirm that the broker engine version is 3.8.22 or higher and set Access type to Private access.
- Specify the VPC, private subnets, and security groups before choosing Next.
Finding the broker’s IP address
Before configuring the NLB’s target groups, you must look up the broker’s IP address. Unlike Amazon MQ for Apache ActiveMQ, RabbitMQ does not show its private IP addresses, though you can reliably find its VPC endpoints using DNS. Amazon MQ creates one VPC endpoint in each subnet with a static address that won’t change until you delete the broker.
- Navigate to the broker’s details page and scroll to the Connections panel.
- Find the endpoint’s fully qualified domain name. It is formatted like broker-id.mq.region.amazonaws.com.
- Open a command terminal on your local workstation.
- Retrieve the ‘A’ record values using the host (Linux) or nslookup (Windows) command.
- Record these values for the NLB configuration steps later.
Configure the load balancer’s target group
The next step in the build process is to configure the load balancer’s target group. You use the private IP addresses of the brokers as targets for the NLB. Create a Target Group, select the target type as IP, and make sure to choose the TLS protocol and for each required port, as well as the VPC your brokers reside in.
It is important to configure the health check settings so traffic is only routed to active brokers. Select the TCP protocol and override the health check port to 443 Rabbit MQ’s console port. Also, configure the healthy threshold to 2 with a 10-second check interval so the NLB detects faulty hosts within 20 seconds.
Be sure not to use RabbitMQ’s AMQP port as the target group health check port. The NLB may not be able to recognize the host as healthy on that port. It is better to use the broker’s web console port.
Add the VPC endpoint addresses as NLB targets. The NLB routes traffic across the endpoints and provides networking reliability if an AZ is offline. Finally, configure the health checks to use the web console (TCP port 443).
Creating a Network Load Balancer
Next, you create a Network Load Balancer. This is an internet-facing load balancer with TLS listeners on port 5671 (AMQP), routing traffic to the brokers’ VPC and private subnets. You select the target group you created, selecting TLS for the connection between the NLB and the brokers. To allow clients to connect to the NLB securely, select an ACM certificate for the subdomain registered in Route 53 (for example ‘mq.example.com’).
To learn about ACM certificate provisioning, read more about the process here. Make sure that the ACM certificate is provisioned in the same Region as the NLB or the certificate is not shown in the dropdown menu.
Optionally configure IP filtering
The NLB is globally accessible and this may be overly permissive for some workloads. You can restrict incoming traffic to specific IP ranges on the NLB’s public subnet by using network access control list (NACL) configuration:
- Navigate to the AWS Management Console to the VPC service and choose Subnets.
- Select your public subnet and then switch to the Network ACL tab.
- Select the link to the associated network ACL (e.g., acl-0d6fxxxxxxxx) details.
- Activate this item and choose Edit inbound rules in the Action menu.
- Specify the desired IP range and then choose Save changes.
Configuring Route 53
Finally, configure Route 53 to serve traffic at the subdomain of your choice to the NLB:
- Go to the Route 53 hosted zone and create a new subdomain record set, such as mq.example.com, that matches the ACM certificate that you previously created.
- In the “type” field, select “A – IPv4 address”, then select “Yes” for alias. This allows you to select the NLB as the alias target.
- Select from the alias target menu the NLB you just created and save the record set.
Now callers can use the friendly name in the RabbitMQ connection string. This capability improves the developer experience and reduces operational cost when rebuilding the cluster. Since you added multiple VPC endpoints (one per subnet) into the NLB’s target group, the solution has Multi-AZ redundancy.
Testing with a RabbitMQ client process
The entire process can be tested using any RabbitMQ client process. One approach is to launch the official Docker image and connect with the native client. The service documentation also provides sample code for authenticating, publishing, and subscribing to RabbitMQ channels.
To log in to the broker’s RabbitMQ web console, there are three options. Due to the security group rules, only traffic originating from inside the VPC is allowed to the brokers:
- Use a VPN connection from your corporate network to the VPC. Many customers use this option but for rapid testing, there is a simpler and more cost-effective method.
- Connect to the brokers’ web console through your Route 53 subdomain, which requires creating a separate web console port listener (443) on the existing NLB and creating a separate TLS target group for the brokers.
- Use a bastion host to proxy traffic to the web console.
In this post, you build a highly available Amazon MQ broker in a private subnet. You layer security by placing the brokers behind a highly scalable Network Load Balancer. You configure routing from a single custom subdomain URL to multiple brokers with a built-in health check.
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