Customers use AWS Lambda to build a wide range of applications, including mission-critical and compute-intensive applications. The most demanding workloads include machine learning inferencing, media processing, high performance computing (HPC), scientific simulations, and financial modeling. With the release of Advanced Vector Extensions 2 (AVX2) support for Lambda, builders can benefit from improved performance for these types of applications.
This blog post explains AVX2 and how you can take advantage of this instruction set in your Lambda functions. I walk through an example of how to enhance performance of a typical use case using AVX2 and measure the performance gain. This feature is available for new or existing Lambda-based workloads at no additional cost.
AVX2 provides extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture. This is a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instruction set that enables running a set of highly parallelizable operations simultaneously. AVX2 allows CPUs to perform a higher number of integer and floating-point operations per clock cycle. For vectorizable algorithms, this can enhance performance resulting in lower latencies and higher throughput.
Implementing AVX2 in an example application
Pillow is a popular Python-based imaging library. It provides powerful image manipulation functions that use computationally complex processes. Computer vision operations such as convolution resampling can benefit from parallelization. This is because the filters are applied on different windows that are independent and can be processed in parallel. In this section, I compare the performance of an image transformation after applying AVX2 instructions.
The following example downloads an original JPEG object from an Amazon S3 bucket, resizes the image, and then saves the result to another S3 bucket. There are three resizing filters used – bilinear, bicubic, and Lanczos.
import boto3 import os from PIL import Image # Download the image to /tmp s3 = boto3.client('s3') s3.download_file('my-input-bucket', 'photo.jpeg', '/tmp/photo.jpeg') def lambda_handler(event, context): # Open image and perform resize image = Image.open('/tmp/photo.jpeg') # Select one of the three algorithms image = image.resize((256, 128), Image.BILINEAR) # image = image.resize((256, 128), Image.BICUBIC) # image = image.resize((256, 128), Image.LANCZOS) # Save and upload to S3 image.save('/tmp/thumbnail.jpeg', 'JPEG') s3.upload_file('/tmp/thumbnail.jpeg', 'my-output-bucket', 'thumbnail.jpeg') return "Success!"
To convert code to use AVX2, you must recompile the source code with the appropriate flags, or use packages and dependencies optimized for AVX2. In this example, you can use a production-ready fork of Pillow called pillow-simd. When compiled for AVX2, it uses the AVX2 instructions to accelerate many of the features in Pillow.
First, you must compile the library using the same Amazon Linux AMI and kernel version that is used by the Lambda service. To do this, use an EC2 or AWS Cloud9 instance running Amazon Linux 2, or using a Docker container with a Lambda-supported image. Compile the library using the following commands:
# Install dependencies ~ yum install -y \ freetype-devel \ gcc \ ghostscript \ lcms2-devel \ libffi-devel \ libimagequant-devel \ libjpeg-devel \ libraqm-devel \ libtiff-devel \ libwebp-devel \ make \ openjpeg2-devel \ rh-python36 \ rh-python36-python-virtualenv \ sudo \ tcl-devel \ tk-devel \ tkinter \ which \ xorg-x11-server-Xvfb \ zlib-devel \ && yum clean all # Compile code with AVX2 flag CC="cc -mavx2" pip install --force-reinstall --no-cache-dir -t . --compile pillow-simd
You can then use this compiled, AVX2-compatible version of the Pillow library in a Lambda function. This can be bundled with the deployment code or you can deploy the library as a Lambda layer. Depending on the version, you may have to include the following binaries from the `/usr/lib64` directory with the function. If so, add this location to LD_LIBRARY_PATH so the binaries are discoverable:
cp /usr/lib64/libtiff.so.5 lib/libtiff.so.5 cp /usr/lib64/libjpeg.so.62 lib/libjpeg.so.62 cp /usr/lib64/libjbig.so.2.0 lib/libjbig.so.2.0
In this test, I compare the performance of both the original function and the AVX2-optimized version with 1024 MB of memory. The test uses the following image:
- Bilinear filter.
- Bicubic filter.
- Lanczos filter.
The timings exclude S3 transfers and only compare the image transformation operation. The results of the three resize operations are:
|Filter||Without AVX2||With AVX2||Performance|
Using AVX2 in popular Lambda runtimes
This process involves recompiling the source code with appropriate flags, or by selecting packages and dependencies optimized for AVX2. For popular runtimes used in Lambda:
- Python: Python developers frequently use scipy and numpy libraries to support scientific or computationally complex work. These libraries can be compiled with the AVX2 flag or linked with MKL to take advantage of AVX2.
- Java: Java’s JIT compiler can auto-vectorize code to run with AVX2 instructions. To learn more, see this post on how to detect vectorization and potentially optimize code to take advantage of this.
- Golang: the standard golang compiler does not currently support auto-vectorization. However, you can use the gcc compiler for Go, gccgo.
- Node: for compute intensive workloads, use the AVX2-enabled or MKL-enabled versions of libraries.
- Compiling from source: for C or C++ libraries for vectorizable work, compile with the appropriate flags to allow the compiler to automatically vectorize your code. See the documentation for additional details.
Enabling AVX2 for the Intel Math Kernel Library
The Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL) is a library of optimized math operations that implicitly use AVX2 instructions when available on the compute platform. Many popular frameworks, such as PyTorch, build with MKL by default so you don’t need to take additional actions. Some libraries, such as TensorFlow, provide options in their build process to specify MKL optimization (set –config=mkl as an option).
You can also build popular scientific Python libraries, such as SciPy and NumPy, with MKL. For instructions on building libraries with MKL, read Numpy/Scipy with Intel MKL and Intel Compilers. Intel also provides a Python distribution that includes SciPy and NumPy with MKL.
After enabling AVX2 for your Lambda functions, you can compare the before-and-after performance. Lambda emits a latency metric in CloudWatch that you can use to measure the performance improvement. Other third-party production monitoring tools (for example, Datadog or New Relic) can also capture these metrics to profile the performance.
Pricing and availability
Starting today, customers can either compile their existing workloads or deploy new ones to target this instruction set at no additional cost. To learn more on how to build AVX2 compatible applications on AWS Lambda, read the Lambda Developer Guide.
Support for AVX2 is available in all Regions where Lambda is available, except for the Regions in China. For more information on availability, see the AWS Region table.
With the release of AVX2 for Lambda, customers can now run AVX2-optimized workloads while benefitting from the pay-for-use, reduced operational model of AWS Lambda. This feature is provided at no additional cost.
Developers can create highly scalable synchronous, asynchronous, or streaming applications. Compared to the x86 Intel baseline instruction set, AVX2 allows CPUs to perform more integer and floating-point operations per clock cycle. This speeds up compute-intensive applications with parallelizable operations to process data faster and improve throughput. Developers can schedule queues with data-intensive jobs and deliver performant end user experiences.