This post was co-written with Marcus Rosen, a Principal  – Machine Learning Operations with Rio Tinto, a global mining company. 

Data pre-processing is an important step in setting up Machine Learning (ML) projects for success. Many AWS customers use Apache Spark on AWS Glue or Amazon EMR to run data pre-processing scripts while using Amazon SageMaker to build ML models.  To develop spark scripts in AWS Glue, you can create an environment called a Glue Development (Dev) Endpoint that lets you author and test your data pre-processing scripts iteratively. When you’re satisfied with the results of your development, you can create a Glue ETL job that runs the final script as part of your automation framework.

With the introduction of Amazon SageMaker Studio in AWS re:Invent 2020, you can now use a single web-based IDE to spin up a notebook and perform all ML development steps. These include data pre-processing, ML model training, ML model deployment and monitoring.

This post walks you through how to connect a SageMaker Studio notebook to an AWS Glue Dev Endpoint, so you can use a single tool to iteratively develop both data pre-processing scripts and ML models.

Solution Overview

The following diagram shows the components that are used in this solution.

  • First, we use an AWS CloudFormation template to set up the required networking components (for example, VPC, subnets).
  • Then, we create an AWS Glue Dev Endpoint and use a security group to allow SageMaker Studio to securely access the endpoint.
  • Finally, we create a studio domain and use a SparkMagic kernel to connect to the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint and run spark scripts.

In the Amazon SageMaker Studio notebook, SparkMagic will call a REST API against a Livy server running on the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint. Apache Livy is a service that enables interaction with a remote Spark cluster over a REST API.

 

The following diagram shows the components that are used in this solution. We use an AWS CloudFormation template to set up the required ntworking components (for example, VPC, subnets).

Set up the VPC

You can use the following CloudFormation template to set up the environment needed for this solution.

launch stack button

This template deploys the following resources in your account:

  • A new VPC, with both public and private subnet.
  • VPC endpoints for the following resources:
  • Security groups for SageMaker Studio, Glue endpoint and VPC endpoints
  • SageMaker Service IAM role
  • AWS Glue Dev Endpoint IAM role
  • Set up the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint

Set up AWS Glue Dev Endpoint

Review this Developer Guide: Adding a Development Endpoint for instructions to create an AWS Glue Dev Endpoint.

Note: you must use the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint IAM role provisioned by the CloudFormation template.

  • In the Networking section, select Choose a VPC, subnet, and security groups.

Then choose the VPC glue security group, which you provisioned through the CloudFormation template.

The AWS Glue Dev Endpoint needs to be secured with an SSH public key, which should be generated within your local environment. An SSH key pair (public/private) can be generated using the ssh-keygen on Linux or using PuTTYgen on Windows.

Glue Dev Endpoint screenshot

The final review page looks similar to the following screenshot.

Final review page

Once the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint is in Ready status, keep note of its private IP address (Glue -> ETL -> Dev Endpoints). You will use this IP for the Livy port forwarding.

Set up SageMaker Studio

We recommend launching the SageMaker Studio resource by following the instructions in Securing Amazon SageMaker Studio connectivity using a private VPC .

Follow these steps when you provision the SageMaker Studio resources:

  • Select Standard setup with the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) authentication method.
  • Attach a SageMaker Service IAM role, created by the CloudFormation template, to SageMaker Studio.
  • Under Network and storage, select the same VPC and private subnet as the AWS Glue endpoint.
  • For the Network Access for Studio option, select VPC Only — SageMaker Studio will use your VPC. Direct internet access is disabled.

Then ensure that the security group with the self-referencing rule is attached. Also, check your other required security groups are attached for SageMaker Studio from the CloudFormation template output.

Connect the SageMaker Studio notebook to the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint

Once you launch the SageMaker Studio and you add the users. Follow these steps to connect the SageMaker Studio notebook to the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint:

  1. Open the Studio and go to the launcher page (by pressing the “+” icon on the top-left of the page.
  2. Under Notebooks and compute resources, select SparkMagic in the dropdown menu and select Notebook.
  3. Then open another launcher page, select SparkMagic in the same dropdown menu and select Image terminal. One thing to note is that the SparkMagic app will take some time to initialize. Proceed once the apps are in Ready status (2-3 minutes).

Notebooks and compute resources screenshot

4. Upload the private key into SparkMagic Image terminal. In other words, copy the private key to “.ssh” directory and update its permissions using “chmod 400”.

Note: the private key is corresponding to the public key used when you create the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint.

5. Now, you need to achieve port forwarding of the Livy service in order for SparkMagic kernel to be able to connect to the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint.  You run the following command in the image terminal:

/usr/bin/ssh -4 -N -o ServerAliveInterval=60 -o ServerAliveCountMax=3 -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -i /root/.ssh/{PRIVATE_KEY} -L 8998:169.254.76.1:8998 [email protected]{GLUE_ENDPOINT_PRIVATE_IP_ADDRESS}

The command consists of:

  • {PRIVATE_KEY} is the private key file name that you copied into .ssh directory.
  • {GLUE_ENDPOINT_PRIVATE_IP_ADDRESS} is the private IP address of the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint.
  • “8998” is the Livy port we are using for port forwarding.
  • “169.254.76.1” is the remote IP address defined by AWS Glue, this IP address does not change.

Note: Keep this terminal open and the SSH command running in order to keep the Livy session active.

6. Go to the SparkMagic notebook and restart the kernel, by going to the top menu and selecting Kernel > Restart Kernel.

7. Once the notebook kernel is restarted, the connection between the Studio Notebook and the AWS Glue Dev Endpoint is ready. To test the integration, you can run the following example command to list the tables in the AWS Glue Data Catalog.

spark.sql("show tables").show()

To test the integration, you can run the following command to list the tables in the Glue Data Catalog

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring future charges, delete the resources you created:

Conclusion

Our customers needed a single web-based IDE to spin up a notebook and perform all ML development steps including data pre-processing, ML model training, ML model deployment and monitoring. This blog post demonstrated how you can configure a SageMaker Studio notebook and connect to AWS Glue Dev Endpoint. This provides a framework for you to use  when developing both data preprocessing scripts and ML models.

To learn more about how to develop data pre-processing scripts and ML models in Amazon SageMaker, you can check out the examples in this repository.

Field Notes provides hands-on technical guidance from AWS Solutions Architects, consultants, and technical account managers, based on their experiences in the field solving real-world business problems for customers.

 

Marcus Rosen

Marcus Rosen

Marcus Rosen is a Principal – Machine Learning Operations with Rio Tinto, a multi-national mining company, where he spends most of his time helping the data science teams automate and deploy machine learning models on the AWS cloud. Marcus is a member of the AWS Cloud Alliance and AWS Subject Matter Expert (SME).